Realistic and critical review of the state of systemic antimicrobial peptides
Antimicrobial peptides with systemic efficacy
Antimicrobial peptide research remains active not only because of the growing antibiotic resistance problem but also our desire to understand the role of innate immune peptides in host defense. While numerous peptides are currently under active development for topical use, this article highlights peptides with systemic efficacy. The scaffolds of these peptides range from linear to cyclic forms. The neutropenic mouse model is well established to illustrate antimicrobial efficacy from direct killing. The majority of tests, however, are conducted using normal mice so that both direct antimicrobial and immune regulatory effects can be characterized. These systemic examples underscore the possibility of adding new candidates to the list of the existing peptide antibiotics to more effectively combat antibiotic-resistant bacteria, fungi, and parasites.
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