Recent advances in nanoparticles as antibacterial agent
Recently, the rapid increase in antibiotic-resistant pathogens has caused serious health problems. Researchers are searching for alternative antimicrobial substances to control or prevent infections caused by pathogens. Different strategies are used to develop effective antibacterial agents, and in this respect, nanoparticles are undoubtedly promising materials. Nanoparticles act by bypassing drug resistance mechanisms in bacteria and inhibiting biofilm formation or other important processes related to their virulence potential. Nanoparticles can penetrate the cell wall and membrane of bacteria and act by disrupting important molecular mechanisms. In combination with appropriate antibiotics, NPs may show synergy and help prevent the developing global bacterial resistance crisis. Furthermore, due to characteristics such as enhanced biocompatibility and biodegradability, polymer-based nanoparticles enable the development of a wide range of medical products. Antibacterial applications of nanoparticles range from antimicrobial synthetic textiles to biomedical and surgical devices when nanoparticles are embedded/loaded/coated into different materials. In this review, the antibacterial mechanisms of nanoparticles and their potential for use in the medical field are discussed.
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