Simultaneous electrochemical determination of acetaminophen and metoclopramide at electrochemically pre-treated disposable graphite pencil electrode
A sensitive and economic voltammetric method was developed for the simultaneous determination of acetaminophen (AMP) and metoclopramide (MCP) using pre-treated graphite pencil electrode (PTGPE). Compared to a graphite pencil electrode, the pre-treated electrode showed an apparent shift of the oxidation potentials in the positive direction and a notable enhancement in the current responses for both AMP and MCP. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) was used to study the voltammetric behavior of the drugs, while differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was used to determine AMP and MCP simultaneously. The dependence of the current on scan rate, pH and concentration was investigated to boost the experimental conditions for simultaneous determination. The calibration curves were obtained over the range of 0.1×10-7 to 1.1×10-7 M, the concentration of each of both the drugs was varied by keeping the other constant, and achieved lower detection limit of 3.25 nM for AMP and 1.16 nM for MCP. The developed method was found to be selective and rapid for the simultaneous determination of AMP and MCP. The proposed method was applied simultaneously in real samples and pharmaceutical samples, with satisfactory results.
J.I. Gowda, S.T.Nandibewoor, Anal. Methods, 6 (2014) 5147-5154.
E. Alipour, S. Gasemlou, Anal. Methods,4 (2012) 2962-2969.
I. Parlak, R. Atilla, M. Cicek, M. Parlak, B. Erdur, M. Guryay, M. Sever, S. Karaduman, Emerg. Med. J. 22 (2005) 621-624.
P. Norouzi, M. R. Ganjali, P. Matloobi, Electrochem. Commun. 7 (2005) 333-338.
C. P. Page, M. J. Curtis, M. C. Sutter, M. J. A. Walker, B. B. Hoffman, Farmacología Integrada ,Ed. Harcourt. España. 1998.
L.J. Roberts, J.D. Morrow, in: J.G. Hardman, L.E. Limbird, A. G. Gilman (Eds.), The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 10th ed., McGraw-Hill, London, 2001.
R.V. Blanke, W.J. Decker, in: N.W. Tietz (Ed.), Textbook of Clinical Chemistry, W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1986.
D. Gunnell, V. Murray, K. Hawton, Suicide Life Threat. Behav., 30 (2000) 313-326.
W.A. Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 27th ed. The Pharmaceutical Press, London, 1979.
B. D. Clayton and Y. N. Stock, Basic Pharmacology for Nurses, Mosby Inc, Harcourt Health Sciences Company, St. Louis, Mo, USA, 2001.
N. Wangfuengkanagul, O. Chailapakul, J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 28 (2002) 841-847.
S. J.Wadher, P. R.Pathankar, M. Puranik, R.O. Ganjiwale, P. G. Yeole, Ind. J. Pharm. Sci.70 (2008) 393-395.
A. E. El-Aleem, S. M. Khalile, A. M. Badawy, O. K. El-Naggar. Research J. Pharma. Dosage Forms and Tech, 5 (2013) 270-274.
G. Shubhangee , K. Manish, N. Swapnil, Int.J.Pharm.Li.Sci, 1 (2010) 127-132.
N.P. Dudhane, S.S.Vidhate. B.H.Borkar, R.T. Lohiya, M.J. Umekar, J. Pharm. Sci. & Res. 2 (2010) 48-52.
G.Vamshikrishna, M.Neelima, M. Bhavani, G,Sreekanth, S. Shobha Rani. IOSR J. Pharm. and Bio. Sci. 9 (201) 69-78.
G.D. Christian and W.C. Purdy, J. Electroanal. Chem. 3 (1962) 363-367.
B. Rezaei and S. Damiri, Sens.Actuators B, 134 (2008) 324-331.
B. D.Topal, B. Bozal, B. T. Demircigil, B. Ulsu, S.A. Ozkan, Electroanalysis. 21 (2009) 2427-2439.
J. Wang, Electroanalytical Techniques in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine; VCH: New York, 1988.
P.T. Kissinger, W.R. Heineman, Laboratory Techniques in Electroanalytical Chemistry, 2nd ed.; Marcel Dekker: New York, 1996.
D. K. Gosser, Cyclic Voltammetry: Simulation and Analysis of Reaction Mechanisms, VCH, New York, 1993.
E. Laviron, J. Electroanal. Chem., 101 (1979) 19-21.
J. Bard, L. R. Faulkner, Electrochemical Methods Fundamentals and Applications, Wiley, 2nd edn, 2004,
X. Kang, J. Wang, H. Wu, J. Liu, I. A. Aksay, Y. Lin, Talanta, 81 (2010) 754-759.
A. T. Buddanavar, S.T. Nandibewoor, Der Pharmacia Lettre, 7 (2015) 383-391.
Articles are published under the terms and conditions of the
Creative Commons Attribution license 4.0 International.