Cerium-based conversion films developed on LiAl-layered double hydroxide coatings for corrosion protection of AA7075 aluminum alloys

Original scientific paper

  • Aurora Petica Center of Surface Science and Nanotechnology, University Politehnica of Bucharest, Splaiul Independentei 313, 060042 Bucharest, Romania
  • Adrian Cristian Manea Center of Surface Science and Nanotechnology, University Politehnica of Bucharest, Splaiul Independentei 313, 060042 Bucharest, Romania
  • Geanina Mihai Center of Surface Science and Nanotechnology, University Politehnica of Bucharest, Splaiul Independentei 313, 060042 Bucharest, Romania
  • Ioana Nicola ICPE-SA, Splaiul Unirii 313, 030138, Bucharest, Romania
  • Victoria Ceara ICPE-SA, Splaiul Unirii 313, 030138, Bucharest, Romania
  • Liana Anicai Center of Surface Science and Nanotechnology, University Politehnica of Bucharest, Splaiul Independentei 313, 060042 Bucharest, Romania https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1145-2948
Keywords: Conversion coatings, chromium-free conversion coatings, aluminum alloys, corrosion behavior;, hydrophobic layers
Graphical Abstract


The paper presents several experimental results regarding the influence of various procedures applied to incorporate Ce species in hydrotalcite–type chemical conver­sion coatings on the overall corrosion performance for AA 7075 aluminum alloy as a metallic substrate. Two routes were envisaged: (i) chemical incorporation of Ce by immersion in cerium nitrate solutions and (ii) electrochemical deposition of hydro­phobic Ce - based layer involving ethanolic solutions of stearic acid and cerium nitrate. The chemical route involving immersion in cerium nitrate solutions led to the incorpo­ration of 2.46 – 6.84 wt.% Ce in the composition of the porous conversion layer. The electrochemical process facilitated the formation of a hydrophobic cerium stearate layer on porous hydrotalcite conversion coating showing water contact angles of about 132o and a higher Ce content incorporated of 6.55 – 9.73 wt.%. The corrosion performance of the Ce-based conversion coatings is also discussed.


Download data is not yet available.


W. Nickerson, C. Matzdorf, Non-Chromate Aluminum Pre-treatments – Final Report, Project WP-200025/2012. https://apps.dtic.mil/sti/pdfs/ADA582070.pdf (accessed February 2022)

A. M. Pereira, G. Pimenta, B. D. Dunn, Assessment of Chemical Conversion Coatings for the Protection of Aluminium Alloys - A Comparison of Alodine 1200 with Chromium-Free Conversion Coatings, ESA STM-276 /2008, European Space Agency; http://esmat.esa.int/ESA-STM-276.pdf (accessed February 2022)

A. D. Nicolo, L. Paussa, A. Gobessi, A. Lanzutti, C. Cepek, F. Andreatta, L. Fedrizzi, Surface and Coatings Technology 287 (2016) 33-43. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2015.12.059

N. C. Rosero-Navarro, M. Curioni, Y. Castro, M. Aparicio, G. E. Thompson, A. Durán, Surface and Coatings Technology 206 (2011) 257-264. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2011.07.006

A. E. Hughes, T.G. Harvey, N. Birbilis, A. Kumar, R. G. Buchheit, Coatings for corrosion prevention based on rare earths, in Rare Earth-Based Corrosion Inhibitors, M. Forsyth, B. Hinton (Eds.), Woodhead Publishing Series in Metals and Surface Engineering No. 61, Elsevier, 2014, p. 186-232.

G. Bierwagen, R. Brown, D. Battocchi, S. Hayes, Progress in Organic Coatings 68 (2010) 48-61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.porgcoat.2009.10.031

O. Gharbi, S.Thomas, C. Smith, N. Birbilis, npj Materials Degradation 2 (2018) 12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41529-018-0034-5

R. G. Buchheit, S. B. Mamidipally, P. Schmutz, H. Guan, Active corrosion protection in chromate and chromate free conversion coatings. Scientific Report Ohio State University, 2000. https://www.academia.edu/23404374/Active_Corrosion_Protection_in_Chromate_and_Chromate_Free_Conversion_Coatings

M. W. Kendig, R. G. Buchheit, Corrosion 59(5) (2003) 379-400. https://doi.org/10.5006/1.3277570

G. Harvey, Corrosion Engineering, Science and Technology 48(4) (2013) 248-269. https://doi.org/10.1179/1743278213Y.0000000089

M. F. Montemor, Fostering Green Inhibitors for Corrosion Prevention, in Active Protective Coatings. New-Generation Coatings for Metals, A. E. Hughes, J. M. C. Mol, M. L. Zheludkevich, R. G. Buchheit (Eds.), Springer Series in Materials Science vol. 233, Springer Science+Business Media, Dordrecht, Holland, 2016, p. 107

J. J. Alba-Galvín, L. González-Rovira, M. Bethencourt, F. J. Botana, J. M. Sánchez-Amaya, Metals 9 (2019) 320. https://doi.org/10.3390/met9030320

P. Campestrini, H. Terryn, A. Hovestad, J. H. W. de Wit, Surface and Coatings Technology 176 (2004) 365-381. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0257-8972(03)00743-6

B. W. R. Hinton, D. R. Arnott, N. E. Ryan, Metals Forum 4 (1984) 211-217. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/280014915_inhibition_of_aluminum_alloy_corrosion_by_cerous_cations

B. W. R. Hinton, D. R. Arnott, N. E. Ryan, Materials Forum 9(3) (1986) 162-173. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/279891652_Cerium_Conversion_Coatings_for_the_Corrosion_Protection_of_Aluminum

A. E. Hughes, J. D. Gorman, P. J. K. Paterson, Corrosion Science 38 (1996) 1957-1976. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0010-938X(96)00088-1

A. de Frutos, M. A. Arenas, Y. Liu, P. Skeldon, G. E. Thompson, J. de Damborenea, A. Conde, Surface and Coatings Technology 202 (2008) 3797-3807. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2008.01.027

S. G. Hardin, K. W. Wittel, A. E. Hughes, K. J. H. Nelson: Process and solution for providing a conversion coating on a metallic surface, World Intellectual Property Organization Patent WO-2001-071059, 2001.

A. I. Khan, D. O’Hare, Journal of Materials Chemistry 12 (2002) 3191-3198. https://doi.org/10.1039/B204076J

T. N. Shulha, M. Serdechnova, S. V. Lamaka, D. C. F. Wieland, K. N. Lapko, M. L. Zhelud-kevich, Scientific Reports 8 (2018) 16409. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-34751-7

R. G. Buchheit, P. G. Schmutz, H. G. Guan, S. B. Mamidipally, Corrosion 58 (2002) 3-14. https://doi.org/10.5006/1.3277303

P. Visser, Y. Liu, X. Zhou , T. Hashimoto , G.E. Thompson, S.B. Lyon, L.G.J. van der Ven, A.J.M.C. Mol, H. A. Terryn, The corrosion protection of AA2024-T3 aluminium alloy by leaching of lithium-containing salts from organic coatings, Faraday Discussions 180 (2015) 511-526. https://doi.org/10.1039/C4FD00237G

P. Visser, Y. Gonzalez-Garcia, J. M. C. Mol, H. Terryn, Journal of the Electrochemical Society 165 (2018) C60-C70. https://doi.org/10.1149/2.1011802jes

R. G. Buchheit, M. D. Bode, G. E. Stoner, Corrosion 50(3) (1994) 205-214. https://doi.org/10.5006/1.3293512

C. A. Drewien, M. O. Eatough, D. R. Tallant, C. R. Hills, R. G. Buchheit, Journal of Materials Research 11 (1996) 1507-1513. https://doi.org/10.1557/JMR.1996.0188

P. Visser, H. Terryn, J. M. C. Mol, Surface and Interface Analysis 51 (2019) 1276-1287. https://doi.org/10.1002/sia.6638

S. M. C. Fernandes, O. V. Correa, J. A. Souza, R. A. Antunes, N. B de Lima, L. V. Ramanathan, Preparation and characterization of hydrotalcite coatings to protect aluminum alloys, 22º CBECiMat - Congresso Brasileiro de Engenharia e Ciência dos Materiais, 6-10 November 2016, Natal, RN, Brasil, p. 6793-6804

Y. Zhang, J. Liu, Y. Li, M. Yu, X. Yin, S. Li, Journal of Wuhan University of Technology, Materials Science Edition 32 (2017) 1199-1204. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11595-017-1731-6

Y. Zhang, Y. Li, Y. Ren, H. Wang, F. Chen, Materials Letters 192 (2017) 33-35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matlet.2017.01.038

M. A. Iqbal, M. Fedel, Advances in Materials Science and Engineering 2020 (2020) 5785393. https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/5785393

M. Fedel, M. Zampiccoli, Applied Sciences 11 (2021) 8252. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11178252

Y. Cao, D. Zheng, F. Zhang, J. Pan, C. Lin, Journal of Materials Science & Technology 102 (2022) 232-263. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmst.2021.05.078

B. Yang, Y. Ma, Z. Liang, Y. Liao, Z. Wang, P. Zhu, Surface and Coatings Technology 405 (2021) 126629. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2020.126629

M. A. Iqbal, H. Asghar, M. Fedel, Journal of Alloys and Compounds 844 (2020) 156112. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2020.156112

G. Boisier, A. Lamure, N. Pébère, M. Villatte, Surface and Coatings Technology 203 (22) (2009) 3420-3426. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2009.05.008

M. A. Iqbal, H. Asghar, M. Fedel, Solids 2 (2021) 76-86. https://doi.org/10.3390/solids2010004

B. Zhang, Y. Li, B. Hou, RSC Advances 5 (2015) 100000-100010. https://doi.org/10.1039/C5RA21525K

B. Zhang, Q. Zhu, Y. Li, B. Hou, Chemical Engineering Journal 352 (2018) 625-633. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2018.07.074

V. Gordovskaya, M. Curioni, T. Hashimoto, J. Walton, G. E. Thompson, P. Skeldon, Journal of the Electrochemical Society 163(6) (2016) C253-C259. https://doi.org/10.1149/2.0201606jes

L. Anicai , A. C. Manea, T. Visan, Molecular Crystals and Liquid Crystals 418(1) (2004) 41-53. https://doi.org/10.1080/15421400490478948

R. Andreeva, E. Stoyanova, A. Tsanev, M. Datcheva, D. Stoychev, International Journal of Electrochemical Science 13 (2018) 5333-5351. https://doi.org/10.20964/2018.06.71

C. M. Rangel, T. I. Paiva, P. P da Luz, Surface and Coatings Technology 202 (2008) 3396-3402. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2007.12.017

C. M. Rangel, T. I. Paiva, Portugaliae Electrochimica Acta 18 (2000) 13-21. https://doi.org/10.4152/pea.200001013

M. Datta, D. Landolt, Electrochimica Acta 45(15-16) (2000) 2535-2558. Https://doi.org/10.1016/S0013-4686(00)00350-9

P. Villars, K. Cenzual, Pearson’s Crystal Data: Crystal Structure Database for Inorganic compounds (on CD-ROM), Version 1.0, Release 2007/8, ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio, USA, Entry 251015

W. Wu, F. Zhang, Y.-C. Li, Y.-F. Zhou, Q.-S. Yao, L. Song, R.-C. Zeng, S. C. Tjong, D.-C. Chen, Frontiers of Materials Science 13(4) (2019) 420-430. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11706-019-0476-x

R. Allmann, H. P. Jepsen, Neues Jahrbuch fur Mineralogie, Monatshefte 1969 (1969) 544-551.

K. Lin, X. Luo, X. Pan, C. Zhang, Y. Liu, Applied Surface Science 463 (2019) 1085-1096. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2018.09.034

C. Zhang, X. Luo, X. Pan, L. Liao, X. Wu, Y. Liu, Applied Surface Science 394 (2017) 275-281. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2016.10.034

H. Wang, G. Fan, C. Zheng, X. Xiang, F. Li, Industrial & Engineering Chemical Research, 49 (2010) 2759-2767. https://doi.org/10.1021/ie901519h

F. Di Franco, A. Zaffora, P. Vassallo, M. Santamaria, Journal of the Electrochemical Society 168 (2021) 101502. https://doi.org/10.1149/1945-7111/ac29df

M. A. Iqbal, L. Sun, A. T. Barrett, M. Fedel, Coatings 10 (2020) 428. https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10040428

S. Abirami, T. Bharathidasan, S. Sathiyanarayanan, Corrosion 77(10) (2021) 1080-1099. https://doi.org/10.5006/3799