Influence of intensity of ultrasound on morphology and hardness of copper coatings obtained by electrodeposition

Original scientific paper

  • Ivana Mladenović University of Belgrade, Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, Njegoševa 12, 11 000 Belgrade,Serbia https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6852-7541
  • Jelena Lamovec University of Criminal Investigation and Police Studies, Cara Dušana 196, Zemun, 11 000 Belgrade, Serbia https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2710-3937
  • Dana Vasiljević Radović University of Belgrade, Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, Njegoševa 12, 11 000 Belgrade,Serbia https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7609-8599
  • Vesna Radojević University of Belgrade, Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Karnegijeva 4, 11 000 Belgrade, Serbia
  • Nebojša D. Nikolić University of Belgrade, Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, Njegoševa 12, 11 000 Belgrade,Serbia https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6385-5714
Keywords: Copper, topography, composite hardness model, surface characterization, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy
Graphical Abstract

Abstract

The influence of various intensities of ultrasound applied for the electrolyte stirring on morphological and mechanical characteristics of electrolytically produced copper coatings has been investigated. The copper coatings produced by the galvanostatic regime of the electrodeposition from the basic sulphate electrolyte and the electrolyte with added levelling/brightening additives at the low temperature were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques (surface morphology and topography, respectively) and by Vickers microindentation (hardness). The roughness of coatings increased with the increasing intensity of ultrasound, indicating that morphology of the coatings worsened with the enhanced application of ultrasonic waves. This is attributed to the strong effect of ultrasound on hydrodynamic conditions in the near-electrode layer, which is manifested by the increase of share of the activation control in the mixed activation-diffusion control of electrodeposition with increasing the intensity of ultrasound. The concept of "effective overpotential" originally proposed to explain a change of surface morphology in the conditions of vigorous hydrogen evolution is also applicable for a change of morphology of Cu coatings under the imposed effect of ultrasonic waves. Hardness analysis of the coatings showed that an intensity of applied ultrasound did not have any significant effect on the hardness, especially for the Cu coatings produced from the basic sulphate electrolyte.

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Published
27-02-2022
Section
Coatings