Development and application of a simple physiologically based pharmacokinetic model that quantitatively describes the distribution and elimination of the commonly measured proteins
Increased plasma concentrations of a variety of cellular enzymes (alanine transaminase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, amylase, etc.) are commonly used as routine screening tests for a range of conditions. An increased concentration usually is assumed to result from an increased rate of delivery to the plasma. Factors such as decreased metabolism or excretion or altered extravascular distribution usually are ignored. As a prelude to a detailed analysis of all the factors producing altered plasma enzyme levels, we have reviewed the relevant literature describing the pharmacokinetics (PK) of 13 of the commonly measured plasma proteins and developed a PK model that provides a simple physiological description of all the data. Our model starts with the general 3-compartment, 6-parameter system previously developed for albumin and interprets the fluxes in terms of unidirectional sieved protein convectional volume flows from the plasma to the two tissue compartments and equal lymph flows returning to the plasma. This greatly constrains the model such that each protein is characterized by only two adjustable parameters (plasma clearance and sieving factor). In addition to accurately fitting the plasma kinetics, the model can accurately describe the tissue and lymph protein PK. For example, it can describe the thoracic duct lymph protein concentration following an intravenous infusion or the plasma concentration following a subcutaneous tissue injection. This simple model provides a satisfactory framework for the PK of 12 of the 13 proteins investigated. The glycoprotein intestinal alkaline phosphatase is the exception, requiring the addition of a liver recycling compartment involving the asialoglycoprotein receptor.
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