On the processes of migration and diffusion in the systems with solid-state reagents
This paper deals with peculiarities of diffusion and migration in electrochemical systems with solid-state reagents (ESSSR). Contradictions of the diffusion model are analyzed. It is the difference of applied potentials and the corresponding electric field strength in the bulk solid phase and at the interfaces which is the primary driving force of charge transfer in ESSSR. The time characteristic of diffusion processes is not comparable to the duration of electrode processes at charging/discharging of batteries and especially electrochemical capacitors. In many real systems involving ESSSR, the process of diffusion in solid phase is absent. Examples of charge transfer processes in ESSSR (nickel hydroxide electrode, sparingly soluble quinoid compounds, Li+ intercalation in graphite, etc.) are considered, and the processes are explained using the Grothuss, tunnel and other migration mechanisms. It is shown in this paper that the linear relationship between peak currents in voltammetric curves and the square root of potential scan rate cannot be presented as an ultimate support of the diffusion model, but as а more universal property of ESSSR. In this aspect, the efficient diffusion coefficient, Deff, could be at best discussed, not to distort the ideas of charge-transfer migration mechanisms in the ESSSR.
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