Electrochemical determination of the levels of cadmium, copper and lead in polluted soil and plant samples from mining areas in Zamfara State, Nigeria
The concentrations of lead, copper and cadmium in soil and plant samples collected from Abare and Dareta villages in Anka local government area of Zamfara State, Nigeria have been electrochemically determined. The study was carried out because of the high mortality of women and children under five, reported for these areas in June 2010. The cause was ascribed to the lead poisoning which has been related to the mining and processing of gold-containing ores. Linear sweep anodic stripping voltammetry technique was used with the glassy carbon working, Ag/AgCl reference and platinum auxiliary electrodes. Voltammetric peaks for lead, copper and cadmium that were observed at -495 mV, -19.4 mV and -675 mV, respectively, have formed a basis for construction of the corresponding calibration plots. The concentrations (in mg/kg) of lead, copper and cadmium in the soil samples were found in the ranges of 18.99−26087.70, 2.96−584.60 and 0.00−1354.25, respectively. The concentration values for lead were far above already established USEPA (2002) and WHO (1996) maximum permissible limits for residential areas. The concentrations of lead, copper and cadmium in the food samples ranged between 5.70−79.91, 11.17−41.21 and 0.00−5.74 mg/kg. Several of these values are found well above the FAO/WHO limits of 0.1, 2 and 0.1 mg/kg, respectively. The results indicate that in addition to the lead poisoning, copper and cadmium poisoning may also be responsible for sudden and high mortality in this population.
MedecinsSansFrontieres. MSF Briefing Paper, (2012) http://www.msf.org/en/article/lead-poisoning-crisis-zamfara-state-northern-nigeria (Accessed on 8th October, 2017).
W. O. Okiei, M. Ogunlesi, A. Adio, M. Oluboyo, International Journal of Electrochemical Science 11 (2016) 8280-8294.
S. Khan, Q. Cao, Y. M. Zheng, Y. Z. Huang, Y.G. Zhu, Environmental Pollution 152 (2008) 686-692.
E. D. Doe, A. K. Awua, O. K. Gyamfi, N. O. Bentil, American Journal of Applied Chemistry 1 (2013) 17-21.
W. J. O. Oti, International Journal of Environmental Science and Toxicology Research 3 (2) (2015) 16-21.
S. O. Salihu, J.O . Jacob, M. T. Kolo, Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 13 (2014) 722-727.
W.A. Tegegne, Ethiopia Journal of Cereals and Oilseeds 6 (2015) 8-13.
E. J. Martinez-Finley, S. Chakraborty, S. Fretham, M. Aschner, Metallomics 4 (2012) 593-605.
A. T. Jan, M. Azam, K. Siddiqui, A. Ali, I. Choi, Q. M. R. Haq, International Journal of Molecular Sciences 16 (2015) 29592-29630.
D. A. Cataldo, R. E. Wildung, Environmental Health Perspectives 27 (1978) 149-159.
M. C. Jung, Sensors 8 (2008) 2413-2423.
B. V. Tangahu, S. R. S. Abdullah, H. Basri, M. Idris,N. Anuar, M. Mukhlisin, International Journal of Chemical Engineering 2011 (2011) 1-31.
M. A. Adegboye, Journal of Science and Environmental Management 3 (2013) 77-83.
Z. Y. Hseu, Bioresource Technology 95 (2014) 53-59.
P. Chooto, P. Wararatananurak, C. Innuphat, ScienceAsia 36 (2010) 150-156.
US EPA. United States Environmental Protection Agency. 40 CFR Part 745 [OPPTS-62156H; FRL-6763-5] RIN 2070-AC63. Lead; identification of dangerous Levels of Lead: Final Rule, 2001
US EPA. Supplemental guidance for developing soil screening levels for superfund sites. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, Washington, D.C. (2002) http://www.epa.gov/superfund/health/conmedia/soil/index.htm (Accessed on 8th October, 2017).
WHO. Permissible limits of heavy metals in soil and plants, (Genava: World Health Organization), Switzerland (1996).
UNEP/OCHA, Joint UNEP/OCHA Environment Unit. Lead Pollution and Poisoning Crisis Environmental Emergency Response Mission Zamfara State, Nigeria (2010).
K. D. Tsuwang, I. O. Ajigo, U. A. Lar, International Journal of Science and Environmental Technology 3 (2014) 187-197.
A. Abdul, A. A. Yusuf, African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 7 (2013) 911-916.
Blacksmith Institute. UNICEF Programme. Environmental Remediation – Lead Poisoning in Zamfara State FINAL REPORT, September 2010-March 2011.
CDC. Centre for Disease Control and Prevention. New lead information. National Center for Environmental Health. Division of Emergency and Environmental Health Services, 2017.
ATSDR, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological profile for copper. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Public Health Service, 2004. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp132.pdf (Accessed on 8th October, 2017).
N. Johri, G. Jacquillet, R. Unwin, Biometals 23 (2010) 783-792.
L. Uriah, C. T. Ngozi-Chika, K. Tsuwang, American Journal of Environmental Protection 3(6-2) (2014) 14-18.
FAO/WHO. Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme. Codex Alimentarius Commission.Report of the fifth Session of the Codex Committee on Contaminants in Foods.Thirty-fourth Session, Geneva, Switzerland, 2011, www. ftp://ftp.fao.org/codex/meetings/CCCF/cccf5/cf05_INF.pdf (Accessed on 8th October, 2017).
G. Guttormsen, B. R. Singh, A. S. Jeng, Fertilizer Research 41 (1995) 27-32.
C. K. Bempah, A. B. Kwofie, A. O. Tutu, D. Denutsui, N. Bentil, Elixir International Journal 39 (2011) 4921-4926.
N. Ercal, H. Gurer-Orhan, N. Aykin-Burns, Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry 1 (2001) 529-539.
C. C. Reddy, R. W. Scholz, E. J.Massaro, Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 61 (1981) 460-468.
D. H. Jang, R.S. Hoffman, Neurologic Clinics 29 (2011) 607-622.
G. W. Buchko, N. J. Hess, M. A. Kennedy, Carcinogenesis 21 (2000) 1051-1057.
F. Thevenod, W.K. Lee, Metal Ions in Life Sciences 11 (2013) 415-490.
ATSDR, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological profile for lead. Division of Toxicology and Environmental Medicine, Atlanta, GA, 2007. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp13-p.pdf (Accessed on 8th October, 2017).
ATSDR. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Case studies in environmental medicine (CSEM). Lead toxicity. Course WB 1105. Atlanta GA, 2010.
ATSDR. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological profile for cadmium, US Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA. 2012, pp 1-487.
WHO. World health Organization. Nigeria: Mass lead poisoning from mining activities, Zamfara State, 2010. http://www.who.int/csr/don/2010_07_07/en/ (Accessed on 8th October, 2017).
Articles are published under the terms and conditions of the
Creative Commons Attribution license 4.0 International.