Primary aluminum-air flow battery for high-power applications: Optimization of power and self-discharge

Original scientific paper


  • Dayatri Bolaños-Picado Departamento de Ingeniería Química and Centro de Electroquímica y Energía Química (CELEQ), Universidad de Costa Rica, 11501 2060, Sabanilla de Montes de Oca, San José, Costa Rica.
  • Cindy Torres 1Departamento de Ingeniería Química and 3Centro de Investigación en Ciencia e Ingeniería de Materiales (CICIMA), 11501 2060, Sabanilla de Montes de Oca, San José, Costa Rica.
  • Diego González-Flores Centro de Electroquímica y Energía Química (CELEQ), Centro de Investigación en Ciencia e Ingeniería de Materiales (CICIMA) y Escuela de Química, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica



Ammonium metavanadate, conversion coatings, aluminum alloys, forced flow, primary power source, backup battery
Graphical Abstract


Aluminum-air batteries are a front-runner technology in applications requiring a primary energy source. Aluminum-air flow batteries have many advantages, such as high energy density, low price, and recyclability. One of the main challenges with aluminum-air batteries is achieving high power while parasitic corrosion and self-discharge are minimized. In this study, the optimization of an aluminum-air flow cell by multiple-parameters analysis and integration of a four-cell stack are shown. We also studied the incorporation of ammonium metavanadate (NH4VO3) as anticorrosive in 4 mol L-1 KOH electrolyte by discharge and polarization plots. It was concluded that NH4VO3 is an efficient anticorrosive at low currents, but it limits the battery reaction at high-current and high-power applications. Nevertheless, high currents inhibit the corrosion reaction using 4 mol L-1 KOH electrolyte, allowing high power and capacity without anticorrosive additives. The flow in the stack also plays a significant role, and parallel flow is suggested over cascade flow since the latter results in the progressive accumulation of hydrogen as the electrolyte flows through the stack.


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14-11-2023 — Updated on 14-11-2023

How to Cite

Bolaños-Picado, D., Torres, C., & González-Flores, D. (2023). Primary aluminum-air flow battery for high-power applications: Optimization of power and self-discharge : Original scientific paper. Journal of Electrochemical Science and Engineering, 13(6), 895–909.



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