Photo-bioelectrochemical cell anodes enhanced with titanium oxide, carbon nanotubes and chlorophyll-based catalyst on different supporting materials

Original scientific paper


  • Marcelinus Christwardana Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Diponegoro University, Jl. Prof. Sudarto, S.H., Tembalang, Semarang, Indonesia 50275 and Master Program of Energy, School of Postgraduate Studies, Diponegoro University, Jl. Imam Bardjo, S.H., Pleburan, Semarang, Indonesia 50241
  • Athanasia Amanda Septevani Research Center for Environmental and Clean Technology, National Research and Innovation Agency, KST BRIN Cisitu, Bandung 40135, Indonesia and Collaborative Researh Center for Zero Waste and Sustainability, Universitas Katolik Widya Mandala, Surabaya 60114, Indonesia
  • Dilla Dayanti Master Program of Energy, School of Postgraduate Studies, Diponegoro University, Jl. Imam Bardjo, S.H., Pleburan, Semarang, Indonesia 50241 and Research Center for Environmental and Clean Technology, National Research and Innovation Agency, KST BRIN Cisitu, Bandung 40135, Indonesia



flexible materials, dye-catalyst, artificial photosynthesis, photo-current, maximum power density
Graphical Abstract


An important part of a photo-bioelectrochemical cell (PBEC) is the photo-biocatalyst substrate taken as anode. This study aims to explain the effect of CNT/TiO2/chlorophyll photocatalyst coated on the cellulose nanopaper (CNP) substrate on the PBEC performance and to compare the results with those obtained for the commercial indium tin oxide (ITO) glass and flexible ITO as substrates. The results showed high sheet resistance of CNP, which is 61182 Ω sq-1, which is reduced by 80 % in the presence of CNT/TiO2/Chl biocatalyst. The highest output voltage of 0.95 to 1 V was produced by coating CNT/TiO2/Chl on the flexible ITO. The maximum current density (Jmax) of 3726 mA m-2 and the highest maximum power density value of around 574 mW m-2 were obtained for illuminated CNT/TiO2/Chl on the rigid ITO anode. In dark conditions, the highest power density was observed for CNP as the supporting substrate. The photo-bioelectrochemical cell adopting CNT/TiO2/Chl and CNP as the supporting substrate material has great potential for a variety of applications, such as wearable electronics, environmental monitoring, remote or off-grid energy supply, and renewable energy systems, thereby contributing to the advancement of sustainable energy technologies.



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11-12-2023 — Updated on 11-12-2023

How to Cite

Christwardana, M., Septevani, A. A., & Dayanti, D. (2023). Photo-bioelectrochemical cell anodes enhanced with titanium oxide, carbon nanotubes and chlorophyll-based catalyst on different supporting materials: Original scientific paper. Journal of Electrochemical Science and Engineering, 14(2), 147–161.