Research developments in carbon materials based sensors for determination of hormones


  • Girish Tigari Department of Chemistry, FMKMC College Madikeri, Mangalore University Constituent College, Karnataka, India
  • Jamballi G. Manjunatha Department of Chemistry, FMKMC College, Madikeri, Mangalore University Constituent College, Karnataka, India
  • Hareesha Nagarajappa Department of Chemistry, FMKMC College Madikeri, Mangalore University Constituent College, Karnataka, India
  • Nambudumada S. Prinith Department of Chemistry, FMKMC College Madikeri, Mangalore University Constituent College, Karnataka, India
Keywords: electroanalysis, estriol, estradiol, estrone, progesterone, testosterone
Graphical Abstract


Various carbon-based sensors (graphene, carbon nanotubes, graphite, pencil graphite, glassy carbon, etc.) have distinctive behavior and a broad range of importance for identifying sex hormones like estriol, estradiol, estrone, progesterone, and testosterone. The current review emphasizes voltammetric, amperometric, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic methods for detecting some of these hormones. The existence, structural aspects, nature, and biological importance of each hormone were analyzed in detail and their analysis with different electroanalytical methods was considered. Unique methodologies and innovations of electrochemical sensors for hormones based on carbon materials modified by different agents were examined. In this review, the interaction among various sensor materials and analytes in different supporting electrolyte media is premeditated. The most important significances of the electroanalytical methodologies were discussed based on sensor selectivity, sensitivity, stability, the limit of detection, repeatability, and reproducibility.


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