Benzimidazole-modified polyaniline micro-shells for electrochemical detection of cadmium in aqueous solution

Original scientific paper


  • Eldhose V. Varghese Department of Chemistry, Newman College, Thodupuzha 685585, India and Department of Medicinal and Applied Chemistry, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
  • Bejoy Thomas Department of Chemistry, Newman College, Thodupuzha 685585, India
  • Carsten Schwandt Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FS, United Kingdom
  • Praveen C. Ramamurthy Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India
  • Alex Joseph Department of Chemistry, Newman College, Thodupuzha 685585, India



Polyaniline, electrochemical biosensor, sensor stability, cyclic voltammetry, Differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry
Graphical Abstract


Benzimidazole-functionalized polyaniline (BMPANI) was synthesized by interfacial poly­merization technique and used for electrochemical sensing of cadmium ions in an aqueous solution. The material was characterized for its structural and morphological features using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The BMPANI has a micro-shell structure produced from the self-assembly of the monomer units in solution before the polymerization reaction. The material was trialed for cadmium ion sensing using a BMPANI-modified carbon paste electrode (BMPANI-CPE). Electrochemical techniques, i.e., cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV), were performed to assess the sensing characteristics of the material. Various electrode preparation parameters, i.e., deposition potential, pH of deposition solution, and thickness of the active layer, were optimized to achieve the highest level of sensitivity. The selectivity towards cadmium ions, interference from other ions, as well as stability and reusability of the BMPANI-CPE, were also examined and found to be satisfactory.


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24-02-2023 — Updated on 24-02-2023

How to Cite

Varghese, E. V., Thomas, B., Schwandt , C., Ramamurthy, P. C., & Joseph, A. (2023). Benzimidazole-modified polyaniline micro-shells for electrochemical detection of cadmium in aqueous solution: Original scientific paper. Journal of Electrochemical Science and Engineering, 13(2), 275–286.



Electroanalytical chemistry

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