J. Electrochem. Sci. Eng.  

Simultaneous determination of trace levels of Cd(II) and Pb(II) in tap water samples by anodic stripping voltammetry with 2-mercaptobenzothiazole modified electrode

Sophy Phlay, Weena Aemaeg Tapachai, Supunnee Daungthong, Puchong Worarattananurak, Pipat Chooto


Glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified by 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT), mesoporous silica (Meso) and bismuth was developed to determine Cd(II) and Pb(II) simultaneously by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV). In-situ preparation was found to work best in optimum conditions of acetate buffer pH 6, accumulation potential of
-1.1 V, deposition time of 300 s and scan rate of 200 mV/s. SW peaks revealed the linear range of 5-50 µg/L Cd(II) and 5-50 µg/L Pb(II). LOD and LOQ for Cd(II) and Pb(II) were determined as 0.56, 0.80, 1.87 and 2.66 µg/L, respectively. The interaction of metals with bismuth and MBT, as well as higher surface area due to mesoporous silica, support beneficial performance of the modified electrode. Insignificant interferences from other regularly present metal ions were found. With SRM1640 standard, the SWASV results are found comparable to those obtained by inductive coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The method was used to analyze the metals in tap water by standard addition method with the satisfactory recovery of 100.7 % for Cd(II) and 100.8 % for Pb(II).


Modified electrodes; 2-mercaptobenzothiazole; Square wave anodic stripping voltammetry; Cd(II); Pb(II)

Full Text:

PDF (1,007 kB)


V. Karri, M. Schuhmacher, V. Kumar, Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 48 (2015) 203-213.

C. Yvonne H, M. P. Wilkie, Aquatic Toxicology 161 (2015) 176-188.

United States Environmental Protection Agency, http://water.epa.gov/drink/contaminants/index/cfm (13th September 2017)

Q. Hu, G. Yang, Y. Zhao, J. Yin, Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 375 (2003) 831-835.

S. Xu, S. Xu, Y. Zhu, W. Xu, P. Zhou, C. Zhou, B. Dong, H. Song, Nanoscale 6 (2014) 12573-12579.

M. Fouskaki, N. A. Chaniotakis, Analytical Chemistry 77 (2005) 1780-1784.

R. Liu, P. Liang, Journal of Hazardous Materials 152 (2008) 166–171.

G. Abbasse, B. Ouddane and J. C. Fischer, Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry 17 (2002) 1354-1358.

N. Pourreza, S. Rastegarzadeh, A. Larki, Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 20 (2014) 2680-2686.

D. V. Biller, K. W. Bruland, Marine Chemistry 130-131 (2012) 12-20.

P. Chooto, Modified electrodes for determining trace metal ions. In: Application of the Voltammetry. M. Stoytcheva, R. Zlatev, Ed(s)., Intech, Rijeka, Croatia: InTech; 2017 p. 129

P. Chooto, P. Wararatananurak, C. Innuphat, ScienceAsia 36 (2010) 150-156.

C. Innuphat, P. Chooto, ScienceAsia 43 (2017) 33-41.

S. Cerovac, V. Guzsvány, Z. Kónya, A. M. Ashrafi, I. Švancara, S. Rončević, Á. Kukovecz, B. Dalmacija, K. Vytřas, Talanta 134 (2015) 640-649.

D. Li, J. Jia, J. Wang, Talanta 83 (2010) 332-336.

L. Xiao, B. Wang, L. Ji, F. Wang, Q. Yuan, G. Hu, A. Dong, W. Gan, Electrochimica Acta 222 (2016) 1371-1377.

Y. Zuo, J. Xu, F. Jiang, X. Duan, L. Lu, H. Xing, T. Yang, Y. Zhang, G. Ye, Y. Yu, Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 801 (2017) 146-152.

M. Arab Chamjangali, H. Kouhestani, F. Masdarolomoor, H. Daneshinejad, Sensors and Actuators B Chemical 216 (2015) 384-393.

Y. Wu, N. B. Li, H. Q. Luo, Sensors and Actuators B 133 (2008) 677-681.

K. Keawkim, S. Chuanuwatanakul, O. Chailapakul, S. Motomizu, Food Control 31 (2013) 14-21.

N. Serrano, A. G. Calabuig, M. del Valle, Talanta 138 (2015) 130-137.

H. Dai, N. Wang, D. Wang, H. Ma, M. Lin, Chemical Engineering Journal 299 (2016) 150-155.

S. Kheirandish, M. Ghaedi, K. Dashtian, R. Jannesar, M. Montazerozohori, F. Pourebrahim, M. A. Zare, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 500 (2017) 241-252.

L. Zhu, L. Xu, B. Huang, N. Jia, L. Tan, S. Yao, Electrochimica Acta 115 (2014) 471-477.

J. P. Llovera, C. P. Ràfols, N. Serrano, J. M. Díaz-Cruz, C. Ariño, M. Esteban, Talanta 175 (2017) 501-506.

Z. Guo, D. Li, X. Luo, Y. Li, Q. N. Zhao, M. Li, Y. Zhao, T. Sun, Chi Ma, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 490 (2017) 11-22.

I.P. Khullar, U. Agarwala, Canadian Journal of Chemistry 53 (1975) 1165-1171.

Ş. Tokalıoğlu, A. Papak, Ş. Kartal, Arabian Journal of Chemistry 10 (2017) 19-23.

V. S. Somerset, M. J. Klink, M. M. C. Sekota, P. G. L. Baker, E. I. Iwuoha, Analytical Letters 39 (2006) 1683-1698.

M. d. F. B. Sousa, E. J. Dallan, S. B. Yamaki, R. Bertazzoli, Electroanalysis 9 (1997) 614-618.

H. Huang, W. Zhu, X. Gao, X. Liu, H. Ma, Analytica Chimica Acta 947 (2016) 32-41.

Chemicalland21.com, http://chemicalland21.com/specialtychem/perchem/2-MERCAPTOBENZOTHIAZOLE.htm (29th May 2018)

L. Cao, J. Jia, Z. Wong, Electrochimica Acta 53 (2008) 2177-2182.

Y. Ma, Y. Wang, D. Xie, Y. Gu, X. Zhu, H. Zhang, G. Wang, Y. Zhang, H. Zhao, Chemical Engineering Journal 347 (2018) 953-962.

G. Zhu, Y. Ge, Y. Dai, X. Shang, J. Yang, J. Liu, Electrochimica Acta 268 (2018) 202-210.

C. Göde, M. L.i Yol, A. Yılmaz, N. Atar, S. Wang, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 508 (2017) 525-531.

L. Yu, Q. Zhang, B. Yang, Q. Xu, Q. Xu, X. Hu, Sensors and Actuators B 259 (2018) 540-551.

T. Priya, N. Dhanalakshmi, S. Thennarasu, N. Thinakaran, Carbohydrate Polymers 182 (2018) 199-206.

L. Li, D. Liu, A. Shi, T. You, Sensors and Actuators B 255 (2018) 1762-1770.

K. Pokpas, S. Zbeda, N. Jahed, N. Mohamed, P. G. Baker, E. I. Iwuoha, International Journal of Electrochemical Science 9 (2014) 736-759.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5599/jese.650

jESE : : Open Access Journal  :  : ISSN 1847-9286