J. Electrochem. Sci. Eng.  

Benchmarking of electrolyte mass transport in next generation lithium batteries

Jonas Lindberg, Henrik Lundgren, Göran Lindbergh, Mårten Behm


Beyond conductivity and viscosity, little is often known about the mass transport properties of next generation lithium battery electrolytes, thus, making performance estimation uncertain when concentration gradients are present, as conductivity only describes performance in the absence of these gradients. This study experimentally measured the diffusion resistivity, originating from voltage loss due to a concentration gradient, together with the ohmic resistivity, obtained from ionic conductivity measurements, hence, evaluating electrolytes both with and without the presence of concentration gradients. Under galvanostatic conditions, the concentration gradients, of all electrolytes examined, developed quickly and the diffusion resistivity rapidly dominated the ohmic resistivity. The electrolytes investigated consisted of lithium salt in: room temperature ionic liquids (RTIL), RTIL mixed organic carbonates, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and a conventional Li-ion battery electrolyte. At steady state the RTIL electrolytes displayed a diffusion resistivity ~ 20 times greater than the ohmic resistivity. The DMSO-based electrolyte showed mass transport properties similar to the conventional Li-ion battery electrolyte. In conclusion, the results presented in this study show that the diffusion polarization must be considered in applications where high energy and power density are desired.


Li-ion battery; Li-O2 battery; Room temperature ionic liquid; Diffusion resistivity; Electrolyte mass transport resistivity

Full Text:

PDF (1,278 kB)


[[1] E. J. Cairns, P. Albertus, Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering 1 (2010) 299-320

I. A. Fulton, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 68 (2017) 685-692

P. Verma, P. Maire, P. Novák, Electrochimica Acta 55 (2010) 6332-6341

M. Galinski, A. Lewandowski, I. Stepniak, Electrochimica Acta 51 (2006) 5567-5580

A. Guerfi, M. Dontigny, P. Charest, M. Petitclerc, M. Lagace, A. Vijh, K. Zaghib, Journal of Power Sources 195 (2010) 845-852

C. J. Allen, S Mukerjee, E. J. Plichta, M. A. Hendrickson, K. M. Abraham, Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 2 (2011) 2420-2424

S. A. Freunberger, Y. Chen, Z. Peng, J. M. Gri, L. J. Hardwick, F. Barde, P. Novak, P. G. Bruce, Journal of the American Chemical Society 133 (2011) 8040-8047

A. Nyman, T. G. Zavalis, R. Elger, M. Behm, G. Lindbergh, Journal of the Electrochemical Society 157 (2010) A1236-A1246

A. Nyman, M. Behm, G. Lindbergh, Electrochimica Acta 53 (2008) 6356-6365

L. O. Valoen, J. N. Reimers, Journal of the Electrochemical Society 152 (2005) A882-A891

Y. P. Ma, M. Doyle, T. F. Fuller, M. M. Doeff, L. C. Dejonghe, J. Newman, Journal of the Electrochemical Society 142 (1995) 1859-1868

P. Georen, G. Lindbergh, Electrochimica Acta 47 (2001) 577-587

H. Lundgren, J. Scheers, M. Behm, G. Lindbergh, Journal of The Electrochemical Society 162 (2015) A1334-A1340

A. Ehrl, J. Landesfeind, W. A. Wall, H. A. Gasteiger, Journal of The Electrochemical Society 154 (2017) A826-A836

B. Garcia, S. Lavallee, G. Perron, C. Michot, M. Armand, Electrochimica Acta 49 (2004) 4583-4588

J. K. Kim, L. Niedzicki, J. Scheers, C. R. Shin, D. H. Lim, W. Wieczorek, P. Johansson, J. H. Ahn, A. Matic, P. Jacobsson, Journal of Power Sources 224 (2013) 93-98

A. Noda, K. Hayamizu, M. Watanabe, Journal of Physical Chemistry B 105 (2001) 4603-4610

H. Lundgren, M. Behm, G. Lindbergh, Journal of The Electrochemical Society 162 (2015) A413-A420

K. Ciosek Hogstrom, H. Lundgren, S. Wilken, T. G. Zavalis, M. Behm, K. Edstrom, P. Jacobsson, P. Johansson, G. Lindbergh, Journal of Power Sources 256 (2014) 430-439

J. C. Lassegues, J. Grondin, C. Aupetit, P. Johansson, Journal of Physical Chemistry A 113 (2009) 305-314

M. Datt Bhatt, M. Cho, K. Cho, Canadian Journal of Chemistry-Revue Canadienne De Chimie 89 (2011) 1525-1532

J. C. Lassegues, J. Grondin, D. Talaga, Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 8 (2006) 5629-5632

L. J. Hardwick, M. Holzapfel, A. Wokaun, P. Novak, Journal of Raman Spectroscopy 38 (2007) 110-112

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5599/jese.408

jESE : : Open Access Journal  :  : ISSN 1847-9286